Applied Measurements precision load cells and force sensors, manufactured in the UK, have been used for over 30 years in all industries from aerospace, geotechnical, medical, materials testing and subsea. From R&D projects to high volume scheduled orders, we know we can find a load measuring system to suit you.
If a standard load cell isn’t what you are looking for, our in-house and UK-based experts can also design & manufacture customised sensors and systems to suit your exact requirements.
Applied Measurements are ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management Certified by BSI under certificate number FS 677584 for the design, manufacture and distribution of transducers and measuring systems.
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Load Cells & Force Sensors Explained
What is a load cell?
A load cell – sometimes referred to as a ‘force’, ‘weigh’ or ‘weight’ cell – is a transducer that converts the load acting on it into a measurable (analogue or digital) output. The output is proportional to the force or load applied. Below we explain how to carry out force measurement using a load cell and the different types of load cells and force sensors available.
Load Cell Working Principle
The conversion is achieved by the physical deformation of strain gauges, which are bonded onto the load cell structure. The strain gauges are connected into a Wheatstone Bridge circuit with four strain gauges (full bridge), two gauges (half-bridge) or one gauge (quarter bridge). With half and quarter bridges, the bridge is completed using precision monitors.
Additional bondable resistors are configured within the bridge circuit to compensate for the effects of temperature on the zero or no-load signal and the sensitivity (output due to the applied load, plus a further resistor to enable the bridge to be nulled at no load).
The completed Wheatstone Bridge requires a stable DC supply to excite the circuit. This is usually 5Vdc or 10Vdc but can be any value from 1Vdc up to 18Vdc.
As stress is applied to the bonded strain gauges, a resistive change takes place which unbalances the Wheatstone Bridge. This provides an output signal that is linearly proportional to the stress value. The value of this signal, which is also proportional to the excitation voltage, is typically a few millivolts.
These low-level millivolts signals are compatible with a vast range of bespoke strain gauge instrumentation. These instruments include digital displays, analogue and digital amplifiers. Typical analogue amplifiers will generate a higher level voltage (0-5Vdc, 0-10Vdc) or current (0-20mA, 4-20mA) for onward processing.
Digital amplifiers typically provide an RS232, RS422 or RS485 output using either the common ASCII protocol or one of a host of more specialised, industry-specific protocols that have been developed such as Modbus. Both the analogue and digital instrumentation have been reduced in size (miniaturised) sufficiently to enable the item to be fitted within the body of a load cell or force sensor.
Load cell designs are either distinguished by the type of output signal they generate (pneumatic, hydraulic or electrical) or by the method in which they detect the load or weight (bending, shear, compression, tension, etc).
To cater to the huge variety of uses within R&D and industrial applications, a load cell can take many forms. However, the majority of today’s designs utilise strain gauges as the sensing element, where a foil or semiconductor is used.
Foil gauges provide the widest choice of load cell designs and so tend to be the most commonly used. Strain gauge patterns offer measurement of tension, compression and shear forces.
Semiconductor strain gauges are available in a smaller range of patterns but offer the advantages of being smaller and provide large gauge factors, resulting in much larger outputs for the same given stress. Due to these properties, they tend to be used for miniature load cell designs. Proving rings are used for load measurement, using a calibrated metal ring, the movement of which is measured with a precision displacement transducer.
Load Cell Operating Principle
Strain gauge load cells convert the load acting on them into electrical signals. The gauges themselves are bonded onto a beam or structural member that deforms when force is applied. In most cases, four strain gauges are used to obtain maximum sensitivity and temperature compensation. Two of the gauges are usually in tension, and two in compression are wired with compensation adjustments. When a load is applied, the strain changes the electrical resistance of the gauges in proportion to the load. Other load cells are becoming less popular as strain gauge versions continue to increase their accuracy whilst reducing unit costs.
The early load cell designs simply use a strain gauge to measure the direct stress, which is introduced into a metal element when it is subjected to a tensile or compressive force. A bending beam type design uses strain gauges to monitor the stress in the sensing element when subjected to a bending force. More recently, the measurement of shear stress has been adopted as a more efficient method of load determination, as this method is less dependent on the direction in which the force is applied to the load cell.
Other types of load cells used include hydraulic (or hydrostatic), pneumatic, piezoelectric and vibrating wire load cells. Read more on Wikipedia.
Load Cell Designs
Compression Load Cells
Compression force cells often have an integral button design. These are ideal for mounting where space is restricted and they offer excellent long-term stability. They measure compressive forces.
Tension Load Cells
Products specific to this group include ‘S’ and ‘Z’ beams, lift links, canister tension cells, tensile links, submersible canister types, non-contact tension measurement, clamp-on and toggle models.
Compression/Tension Force Sensors
Compression/tension force sensors can be used for applications where the load can go from tension to compression and vice versa. They are ideal for space-restricted environments. Threaded ends facilitate easy installation.
Load Measuring Pins
Products specific to this group include load pins, force pins, custom pins, shackle pins, sheave pins, clevis pins. Load pins are often a convenient way of measuring force by replacing an existing pin with a strain gauged version that can provide an electrical signal proportional to the applied force.
Link Load Cells
Normally, this type of tension link is used in lifting applications on cranes and winches. The cells can be self-indicating links, remote display by wire links or remote display by telemetry links. They are also useful for measuring forces in vertical or horizontal tension frames and marine mooring applications.
S-Beam or Z-Beam
Derived from their shape, S-beam and Z-beam load cells are usually relatively simple designs in which the structure is shaped like an ‘S’ or ‘Z’, with strain gauges bonded to the central sensing area in the form of a Wheatstone bridge. S-Beams can provide an output if under tension or compression and provide superior side-load rejection. Applications include tank level, hoppers and truck scales.
Bending beam load cells incorporate strain gauges that are bonded on the flat upper and lower sections of the load cell at points of maximum strain. These types of sensors are often used in multiple force sensor applications, including tank or vessel weighing and for industrial process control systems. Bending beams have a low profile design for easy integration into restricted spaces. These types of cells are often used for low capacity applications and perform with excellent linearity. One drawback of this design is that it must be loaded correctly to obtain consistent results.
In this design, to maximise the shear effect, the strain gauges are bonded to a reduced part of the beam’s cross-section. The strain gauges are bonded at 45 degrees on either side of the beam to measure the shear strains. Used for medium-to-large capacities, the force sensor has good linearity and is not as susceptible to extraneous loading, in particular to side loads.
Pancake Load Cells
The popular pancake type load cell is configured to operate in shear, offering a very low profile in a design that is easily environmentally sealed and is largely insensitive to off-axis loads.
For high-reliability applications, the pancake style sensor also easily accommodates dual, electrically separated strain bridges. The high stiffness tension-base enables the measurement of tensile forces, which stiffens the structure in compression and allows the incorporation of over-range limiting stops for compression applications.
Platform and Single Point Load Cells (Dual Beam)
This type of force sensor is used in commercial and industrial weighing systems. Thanks to their dual cantilever design, they are insensitive to bending moments providing high accuracy readings and stability, regardless of the position of the load on the platform.
The Dual Beam Sensor Design
Canister Load Cells
Canister sensors are used for single and multiple weighing applications. Many canister designs incorporate an all-stainless steel construction and are hermetically sealed to withstand frequent wash down or damp/wet conditions.
Low Profile Force Sensors
Low profile force sensors can be compression or tension/compression type designs. Mounting holes and female threads are provided for easy installation. These types are often used in weighing research and development activities and for inline force monitoring.
Often, low profile multiple-bending designs incorporate four spokes at 90-degree intervals, where strain gauges are wired to cancel out off-axis moment-induced strains.
Miniature Load Cells
Due to their compact size, miniature versions normally use semiconductor strain gauges as the sensing element. The designs come in many different configurations for both tension and compression force measurement. Miniature force sensors offer good performance with high outputs and high overload capability for protection.
Load Cell Applications
Potential applications include the weighing of silos, vessels, crane safety monitoring, weighing of tanks, vessels and conveyors, lifting, fatigue testing, R&D testing, quality control, industrial weighing scales, weigh platforms, Weighbridges, Underhook scales, tensile testing machines and dynamometers. The marine sector also uses waterproof, submersible or seawater load cells.
Other force sensor designs include special, custom-designed cells, including battery-powered versions, aluminium or stainless steel, robust outdoor weatherproof units, universal, multi-axis versions and waterproof or submersible load cell designs.
Looking After Your Load Cell
Load cells are very delicate instruments and need correct handling and care to avoid costly repairs. Below are a few of Applied Measurements key ways to help maintain your sensor:
- Always choose the correct type of sensor for your application
- Use the sensor within the specified capacity/range to avoid overloading the sensor
- Consider the environment it will be used in and check whether it is suitable for that environment.
- The load cell should be calibrated to UKAS traceable standards to ensure correct measurement results
- Always use within the specified operating temperature and store it within the storage temperature as specified on the datasheet.
- Correct installation is key to good results. Make sure it is installed on flat, clean surfaces for optimum measurements.
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Why Choose Applied Measurements?
- Applied Measurements supply top quality strain gauge sensors and transducers to every corner of industry – UK and worldwide
- Over 100 years of expert transducer knowledge
- Applied Measurements high-quality products all come with a 3-year warranty