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    Published Sensor Application Papers

    Here you will find a selection of published sensor application papers and journals that show you applications of transducers, applications of sensors and how our products could be used.

    Medical research, development & testing, sports science, human body

    Rate of Force Development and Muscle Architecture after Fast and Slow Velocity Eccentric Training

    By Stasinaki, A.-N.; Zaras, N.; Methenitis, S.; Bogdanis, G.; Terzis, G. Rate of Force Development and Muscle Architecture after Fast and Slow Velocity Eccentric Training. Sports 2019, 7, 41. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7020041

    Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the rate of force development (RFD) and muscle architecture early adaptations in response to training with fast- or slow-velocity eccentric squats. […]

    AML product used: Weighing Platforms

    Stirrup forces during approach, take-off and landing in horses jumping 70 cm

    By D.J. Marlin, H.P. Martin, S. Hughes, J.M. Williams, Comparative Exercise Physiology: 17 (3)- Pages: 295 – 301, https://doi.org/10.3920/CEP200056, Published Online: February 03, 2021

    Abstract: Stirrups aid the rider to stabilise their lower leg allowing it to be used effectively for communication and in maintaining their position in the saddle. […]

    AML product used: T24-AO1i Wireless Instrumentation

    Weak Association between Vastus Lateralis Muscle Fiber Composition and Fascicle Length in Young Untrained Females

    Mpampoulis, T.; Methenitis, S.; Papadopoulos, C.; Papadimas, G.; Spiliopoulou, P.; Stasinaki, A.-N.; Bogdanis, G.C.; Karampatsos, G.; Terzis, G. Weak Association between Vastus Lateralis Muscle Fiber Composition and Fascicle Length in Young Untrained Females. Sports 2021, 9, 56. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports9050056

    Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between vastus lateralis muscle fiber length and fiber type composition in individuals with minimal exposure to systematic resistance/power training. […]

    AML product used: WPX Weighing Platform & WP Weigh Platform

    Skeletal Muscle Fiber Size and Gene Expression in the Oldest-Old With Differing Degrees of Mobility

    AUTHOR=Naro Fabio, Venturelli Massimo, Monaco Lucia, Toniolo Luana, Muti Ettore, Milanese Chiara, Zhao Jia, Richardson Russell S., Schena Federico, Reggiani Carlo, TITLE=Skeletal Muscle Fiber Size and Gene Expression in the Oldest-Old With Differing Degrees of Mobility, JOURNAL=Frontiers in Physiology, VOLUME=10, YEAR=2019 URL=https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2019.00313

    Abstract: The oldest-old, in the ninth and tenth decades of their life, represent a population characterized by neuromuscular impairment, which often implies a loss of mobility and independence. As recently documented by us and others, muscle atrophy and weakness are accompanied by an unexpected preservation of the size and contractile function of skeletal muscle fibers. […]

    AML product used: DBBSE-100 kg s-beam load cell

    Neuromuscular and Muscle Metabolic Functions in MELAS Before and After Resistance Training: A Case Study

    Venturelli M, Villa F, Ruzzante F, Tarperi C, Rudi D, Milanese C, Cavedon V, Fonte C, Picelli A, Smania N, Calabria E, Skafidas S, Layec G and Schena F (2019) Neuromuscular and Muscle Metabolic Functions in MELAS Before and After Resistance Training: A Case Study. Front. Physiol. 10:503. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00503
    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).

    Abstract: Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and recurrent stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS) is a rare degenerative disease. Recent studies have shown that resistant training (RT) can ameliorate muscular force in mitochondrial diseases. […]

    AML product used: DBBSE-100 kg s-beam load cell

    The Importance of Lean Body Mass for the Rate of Force Development in Taekwondo Athletes and Track and Field Throwers

    By Angeliki Kavvoura, Nikolaos Zaras, Angeliki-Nikoletta Stasinaki, Giannis Arnaoutis, Spyridon Methenitis, and Gerasimos Terzis, J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 20183, 43.
    Available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial license.

    Abstract: The rate of force development (RFD) is vital for power athletes. Lean body mass (LBM) is considered to be an essential contributor to RFD, nevertheless high RFD may be achieved by athletes with either high or low LBM. The aim of the study was to describe the relationship between lower-body LBM and RFD, and to compare RFD in taekwondo athletes and track and field (T&F) throwers, the latter having higher LBM when compared to taekwondo athletes.[…]

    AML product used: WP800-1000kg weighing platform + DBBE-1000kg S-beam load cell.

    The importance of abductor pollicis longus in wrist motions: A physiological wrist simulator study


    Darshan S.Shah, Claire Middleton, Sabahat Gurdezi, Maxim D.Horwitz, Angela E.Kedgley, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Hand Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Journal of Biomechanics Volume 77, 22 August 2018, Pages 218-222. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

    Abstract: The abductor pollicis longus (APL) is one of the primary radial deviators of the wrist, owing to its insertion at the base of the first metacarpal and its large moment arm about the radioulnar deviation axis.[…]

    AML products used: DBBSMM miniature S-beam load cell

    The Role of Power Fluctuations in the Preference of Diagonal vs. Double Poling Sub-Technique at Different Incline-Speed Combinations in Elite Cross-Country Skiers


    By Christine Dahl, Øyvind Sandbakk, Jørgen Danielsen and Gertjan Ettema, Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Front. Physiol., 21 February 2017. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

    Abstract: In classical cross-country skiing, diagonal stride (DIA) is the major uphill sub-technique, while double poling (DP) is used on relatively flat terrain. Although, the dependence of incline and speed on the preference of either sub-technique seems clearly established, the mechanisms behind these preferences are not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare kinetics and energy consumption in DP and DIA at the same submaximal workload in cross-country skiing under two different incline-speed combinations.[…]

    AML products used: CDF subminiature button load cell

    The effects of wrist motion and hand orientation on muscle forces: A physiologic wrist simulator study


    Darshan S. Shah, Claire Middleton, Sabahat Gurdezi, Maxim D. Horwitz, Angela E. Kedgley, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Hand Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom, Journal of Biomechanics Volume 60, 26 July 2017, Pages 232-237. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

    Abstract: Although the orientations of the hand and forearm vary for different wrist rehabilitation protocols, their effect on muscle forces has not been quantified. Physiologic simulators enable a biomechanical evaluation of the joint by recreating functional motions in cadaveric specimens. Control strategies used to actuate joints in physiologic simulators usually employ position or force feedback alone to achieve optimum load distribution across the muscles.[…]

    AML products used: DBBSMM Miniature S-beam load cell

    The passive biomechanics of human pelvic collecting lymphatic vessels


    By Dimitrios Athanasiou , Lowell T. Edgar , Mohammad Jafarnejad, Katherine Nixon, Delfim Duarte, Edwin D. Hawkins, Samira Jamalian, Paula Cunnea, Cristina Lo Celso, Shunichi Kobayashi, Christina Fotopoulou , James E. Moore Jr. Published: August 21, 2017. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

    Abstract: The lymphatic system has a major significance in the metastatic pathways in women’s cancers. Lymphatic pumping depends on both extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, and the mechanical behavior of lymphatic vessels regulates the function of the system.[…]

    AML products used: UF1 isometric force sensor

    Bovine and degenerated human annulus fibrosus: a microstructural and micromechanical comparison


    Claudio Vergari, Daniel Chan, Andrew Clarke, Jessica C. Mansfield, Judith R. Meakin, Peter C. Winlove. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. August 2017, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 1475–1484. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

    Abstract: The complex structure of the annulus fibrosus is strongly related to its mechanical properties. Recent work showed that it is possible to observe the relative movement of fibre bundles in loaded cow tail annulus; the aim of this work was to describe and quantify annulus fibrosus micromechanics in degenerated human disc, and compare it with cow tail annulus, an animal model often used in the literature.[…]

    AML products used: DBBSMM miniature s-beam load cell

    Control of a wrist joint motion simulator: A phantom study


    By Darshan S. Shah, Angela E. Kedgley, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Journal of Biomechanics Volume 49, Issue 13, 6 September 2016, Pages 3061-3068. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

    Abstract: The presence of muscle redundancy and co-activation of agonist–antagonist pairs in vivo makes the optimization of the load distribution between muscles in physiologic joint simulators vital. This optimization is usually achieved by employing different control strategies based on position and/or force feedback. A muscle activated physiologic wrist simulator was developed to test and iteratively refine such control strategies on a functional replica of a human arm.[…]

    AML products used: DBBSMM miniature s-beam load cell

    Inhalation characteristics of asthma patients, COPD patients and healthy volunteers with the Spiromax® and Turbuhaler® devices: a randomised, cross-over study


    By Wahida Azouz, Philip Chetcuti, Harold Hosker, Dinesh Saralaya and Henry Chrystyn. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2015 15:47. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

    Abstract: Spiromax® is a novel dry-powder inhaler containing formulations of budesonide plus formoterol (BF). The device is intended to provide dose equivalence with enhanced user-friendliness compared to BF Turbuhaler® in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[…]

    AML products used: PR3202 low range differential pressure transmitter

    Intramuscular Fiber Conduction Velocity, Isometric Force and Explosive Performance

    By Spyridon Methenitis, Gerasimos Terzis, Nikolaos Zaras, Angeliki-Nikoletta Stasinaki and Nikolaos Karandreas, NIH National Library of Medicine Published online 2016 Jul 2. doi: 10.1515/hukin-2015-0174

    Abstract: Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force.[…]

    AML products used: WP800-1000kg weighing platform


    Soft pneumatic grippers embedded with stretchable electroadhesion


    By J Guo, K Elgeneidy, C Xiang, N Lohse, L Justham and J Rossiter, Published 27 March 2018 • © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd, Smart Materials and Structures, Volume 27, Number 5. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence.

    Abstract: Current soft pneumatic grippers cannot robustly grasp flat materials and flexible objects on curved surfaces without distorting them. Current electroadhesive grippers, on the other hand, are difficult to actively deform to complex shapes to pick up free-form surfaces or objects.[…]

    AML products used: Miniature in-line s-beam load cell

    Position and Force Control of Cooperating Robots Using Inverse Dynamics


    By Du, Zhenyu, Published 25 Feb 2015, Student thesisDoctoral Thesis › PhD, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath,

    AML products used: Miniature S-Beam Load Cell DBBSMM

    Ocean, marine, weather, wave energy

    Development of the world’s first regenerative hydraulic tidal blade test centre: FASTBLADE

    Cuthill, F., Steynor, J., Lopez Dubon, S., McCarthy, E., & Ó Brádaigh, C. M. (2021). Development of the world’s first regenerative hydraulic tidal blade test centre: FASTBLADE. In Proceedings of the European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference: 14th EWTEC, 5-9 September 2021 Plymouth, UK (The European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC)). EWTEC. https://proceedings.ewtec.org/product/ewtec-2021-plymouth-uk/

    Abstract: The structural lifetime fatigue testing of tidal turbine blades is currently a challenge faced by the tidal industry. Due to the high stiffness and short length of composite tidal blades, it is not possible to perform resonant fatigue testing in the same way as wind turbine blades. […]

    AML products used: DSCC Pancake Load Cells.

    Uncertainty in the Physical Testing of Floating Wind Energy Platforms’ Accuracy versus Precision

    Desmond, C.J.; Hinrichs, J.-C.; Murphy, J. Uncertainty in the Physical Testing of Floating Wind Energy Platforms’ Accuracy versus Precision. Energies 201912, 435. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030435. Available as open access.

    Abstract: This paper examines the impact on experimental uncertainty of introducing aerodynamic and rotor gyroscopic loading on a model multirotor floating wind energy platform during physical testing. […]

    AML products used: Three-Axis Force Sensor OBUXYZ120, 500N rating.

    Experimental Force Data of a Restrained ROV under Waves and Current

    By Roman Gabl, Thomas Davey, Yu Cao, Qian Li, Boyang Li, Kyle L. Walker, Francesco Giorgio-Serchi, Simona Aracri, Aristides Kiprakis, Adam A. Stokes and David M. Ingram, MDPI, June 2020, Available as open access.

    Abstract: Hydrodynamic forces are an important input value for the design, navigation and station keeping of underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). […]

    AML products used: DDEN In-Line Submersible Load Cell.

    Design and Manufacture of a Bed Supported Tidal Turbine Model for Blade and Shaft Load Measurement in Turbulent Flow and Waves

    By Grégory S. Payne, Tim Stallard, Rodrigo Martinez, Renewable Energy Volume 107, July 2017, Pages 312-326 Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

    Abstract: Laboratory testing of tidal turbine models is an essential tool to investigate hydrodynamic interactions between turbines and the flow. Such tests can be used to calibrate numerical models and to estimate rotor loading and wake development to inform the design of full scale machines and array layout.[…]

    AML products used: Torque and thrust transducer DBBSS-TSF plus gauging service on flextures.

    An experimental investigation of tsunami forces on coastal structures


    Lloyd, TO; (2016) An experimental investigation of tsunami forces on coastal structures. Doctoral thesis, UCL (University College London). Available as open access.

    Abstract: This thesis explores the complex fluid interactions between inundating long-period waves and buildings. Several aspects of these are found to be poorly described in the literature, particularly the flow conditions around, and forces applied to, emergent structures.[…]

    AML products used: OBUG single point load cell + DSCUSB fast USB load cell interface

    Snatch loading of a single taut moored floating wave energy converter due to focussed wave groups


    By Martyn Hann, Deborah Greaves, Alison Raby. School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, UK. Ocean Engineering Volume 96, 1 March 2015, Pages 258-271. Available under a Creative Commons license.

    Abstract: This paper concerns experimental measurements of the interaction of a taut moored floating body, representing a wave energy converter in survivability mode, with extreme waves.[…]

    AML products used: DDENA1S in-line submersible load cell

    Civil engineering, structural testing

    Shape Control for Experimental Continuation

    By Robin M. Neville, Rainer M. J. Groh, Alberto Pirrera, and Mark Schenk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 254101 – Published 21 June 2018. Available as open access.

    Abstract: An experimental method has been developed to locate unstable equilibria of nonlinear structures quasistatically. The technique involves loading a structure by the application of either a force or a displacement at a main actuation point while simultaneously controlling the overall shape using additional bidirectional probe points.[…]

    AML products used: DSCRC pancake load cell

    Advanced laboratory studies to explore the axial cyclic behaviour of driven piles


    By Aghakouchak, Amin. Sep-2015. Imperial College London. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs license.

    Abstract: Importance of addressing cyclic behaviour when designing piled foundations has been emphasised in recent years. Instrumented full scale field and model pile tests have revealed key features of pile’s axial cyclic response in recent years.[…]

    AML products used: STALC3 triaxial submersible load cell + AML/SGD strain gauge displacement transducer

    Design and implementation of a supervisory system for the automation of drained and non-drained experiments the triaxial chamber of the  faculty of civil engineering


    By Ramírez García, María Fernánda, Romero Cañón, Diego Andrés. 2009. Universidad De La Salle.

    AML products used: DDE-500N miniature in-line load cell

    Behaviour of multi-storey reinforced concrete panels under horizontal load: theoretical and experimental research


    By İlgün, Abdulkerim; Atımtay, Ergin. 2007.  Selcuk University Digital Archive Systems.

    Abstract: The subject of this research is the study of the strength and behavior of multi-story buildings constructed by the tunnel-framework technique subjected to earthquake excitations.[…]

    AML products used: Civil engineering load cells

    Materials testing

    Wind tunnel measurements of the aerodynamic characteristics of a 3:2 rectangular cylinder including non-Gaussian and non-stationary features


    By Cung H. Nguyen, Dinh T. Nguyen, John S. Owen, David M. Hargreaves, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Volume 220, 2022, 104826, ISSN 0167-6105, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jweia.2021.104826. 

    Abstract: This paper presents a wind tunnel investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics (force and pressure coefficients) of a static 3:2 rectangular cylinder in smooth flow for angles of attack between −4° and 90° at various values of Reynolds number. […]

    AML products used: OBUG Single Platform Load Cell

    Control and data acquisition system for the rolling machine


    By Andrzej Sumorek and Marcin Buczaj. MATEC Web Conf., Volume 252, 2019, III International Conference of Computational Methods in Engineering Science (CMES’18). Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

    Abstract: Rolling machines are often used for forming flat elements or pipes. Problems occur when used to produce cylindrical elements other than pipes, or when experimental materials are used. It is required to introduce flexible control of the rolling process parameters in such cases. […]

    AML products used: P96 Draw Wire Sensor

    Electrical breakdown of an acrylic dielectric elastomer: effects of hemispherical probing electrode’s size and force


    By Bin Chen, Matthias Kollosche, Mark Stewart, James Busfield & Federico Carpi. Pages 290-303. International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials Volume 6, 2015 – Issue 4, Published online: 13 Jan 2016. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

    Abstract: Dielectric elastomers are widely investigated as soft electromechanically active polymers (EAPs) for actuators, stretch/force sensors, and mechanical energy harvesters to generate electricity. Although the performance of such devices is limited by the dielectric strength of the constitutive material, the electrical breakdown of soft elastomers for electromechanical transduction is still scarcely studied.[…]

    AML products used: UF1 isometric force sensor

    Level sensing

    Level sensing system


    By García Fernández, Javier, Bachelor thesis, 2011-05-26, Available as open access.

    Abstract: This report is to present the design and development of a liquid level sensing system based on SCADA system. It is a synthesis of the actions carried out for the construction of the liquid level measuring system.[…]

    AML products used: Pi9911 water depth sensor

    More Technical Resources

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